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In this tutorial, we focus on the non-inverting configuration and present its details. An overview of the non-inverting op-amp will be given in the first section through the concept of the ideal amplifier. Finally, examples of circuits based on the non-inverting configurations are given in the last section.

The circuit representation of an ideal non-inverting op-amp is given in Figure 1 below. We highly recommend the reader to refer to the tutorial Op-amp basics for this section. Moreover, for an ideal circuit, Ri is supposed to be infinite, as a consequence, no currents can enter the op-amp through any input because of the presence of an open circuit. This observation can also be summarized by saying that the node interconnecting the inverting input and resistances R1 and R2 is a virtual short.

AC coupling a non-inverting amplifier In most cases it is possible to DC couple the circuit. Where AC coupling is required it is necessary to ensure that the non-inverting has a DC path to earth for the very small input current that is needed to bias the input devices within the IC. This can be achieved by inserting a high value resistor, R3 in the diagram, to ground as shown below. If this resistor is not inserted the output of the operational amplifier will be driven into one of the voltage rails.

The cut off point occurs at a frequency where the capacitive reactance is equal to the resistance. Similarly the output capacitor should be chosen so that it is able to pass the lowest frequencies needed for the system. In this case the output impedance of the op amp will be low and therefore the largest impedance is likely to be that of the following stage.

Single supply non-inverting amplifier Operational amplifier circuits are normally designed to operate from dual supplies, e. This is not always easy to achieve and therefore it is often convenient to use a single ended or single supply version of the electronic circuit design. This can be achieved by creating what is often termed a half supply rail. The non-inverting op amp circuit is biased at half the rail voltage.

By setting the operating point at this voltage the maximum swing can be obtained on the output without clipping. Single supply rail non-inverting operational amplifier circuit.

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If the inverting input is higher than the non-inverting input, then the output will go low which can be negative, depending on the configuration of the op-amp. This will be covered again, and in more depth, in the op-amp comparator tutorial, but this is sufficient for understanding this tutorial. The circuit setup looks like this: Circuit Diagram of an Inverting Op-Amp Circuit Remembering the Golden Rules of Op-amps , or the 2 most important things to remember with op-amps, we can see that: the inverting input is at a virtual ground as the non-inverting input is tied to ground, and that the same current through Ri is going through Rf.

To help remember what the letters stand for, Ri is the input resistor, and Rf is the feedback resistor, as the output is driving the input through Rf. We can use KCL. We know that current flowing into that node must equal the current flowing out and no current is flowing into the inverting input, so there is only the current coming in via Ri and out via Rf and they are equal to each other.

For example, if you have a 10K feedback resistor, and a 2K input resistor, an input voltage of 2V will yield an output voltage of V. And vice versa if the input is a negative voltage. This is an extremely common op-amp configuration as most feedback loops utilize negative feedback, as that increases stability and reduces distortion.

This is outside the scope of this tutorial, but Kushal discusses it in his control systems tutorials. The circuit is slightly different. These different configurations are simply known as a non-inverting op-amp, and inverting op-amp. In this tutorial, we focus on the non-inverting configuration and present its details. An overview of the non-inverting op-amp will be given in the first section through the concept of the ideal amplifier. Finally, examples of circuits based on the non-inverting configurations are given in the last section.

The circuit representation of an ideal non-inverting op-amp is given in Figure 1 below. We highly recommend the reader to refer to the tutorial Op-amp basics for this section. Moreover, for an ideal circuit, Ri is supposed to be infinite, as a consequence, no currents can enter the op-amp through any input because of the presence of an open circuit.

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Here, a voltage divider with two types of resistors will provide a small fraction of the output toward the inverting pin of the operational amplifier circuit. Non-Inverting Op-Amp Circuit These two resistors will provide necessary feedback to the operational amplifier. Here, the R1 resistor is called a feedback resistor Rf.

Because of this, the Vout depends on the feedback network. The Current rule states that there is no flow of current toward the inputs of an op-amp whereas the voltage rule states that the op-amp voltage tries to ensure that the voltage disparity between the two op-amp inputs is zero. From the above non-inverting op-amp circuit, once the voltage rule is applied to that circuit, the voltage at the inverting input will be the same as the non-inverting input.

So the applied voltage will be Vin. Therefore the non-inverting op-amp will generate an amplified signal that is in phase through the input. Input Impedance In a non-inverting operational amplifier circuit, the input impedance Zin can be calculated by using the following formula. The voltage gain is dependent on two resistances R1 and Rf.

The true difference between the inverting and the non-inverting inputs is which way the output swings with the voltages on the inputs. If the non-inverting input is at a higher voltage than the inverting input, then the output will go high.

If the inverting input is higher than the non-inverting input, then the output will go low which can be negative, depending on the configuration of the op-amp. This will be covered again, and in more depth, in the op-amp comparator tutorial, but this is sufficient for understanding this tutorial.

The circuit setup looks like this: Circuit Diagram of an Inverting Op-Amp Circuit Remembering the Golden Rules of Op-amps , or the 2 most important things to remember with op-amps, we can see that: the inverting input is at a virtual ground as the non-inverting input is tied to ground, and that the same current through Ri is going through Rf. To help remember what the letters stand for, Ri is the input resistor, and Rf is the feedback resistor, as the output is driving the input through Rf.

We can use KCL. We know that current flowing into that node must equal the current flowing out and no current is flowing into the inverting input, so there is only the current coming in via Ri and out via Rf and they are equal to each other. For example, if you have a 10K feedback resistor, and a 2K input resistor, an input voltage of 2V will yield an output voltage of V. And vice versa if the input is a negative voltage.

This is an extremely common op-amp configuration as most feedback loops utilize negative feedback, as that increases stability and reduces distortion.

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