fictitious assets investopedia forex

Interest payments are exchanged at fixed dates through the life of the contract. It is considered to be a foreign exchange transaction and is not required. Financial assets are in-between the other two assets. Financial assets may seem intangible—non-physical—with only the stated value on a piece of paper such as a. Such assets include investments in marketable securities such as stocks, bonds and options; tangible assets like buildings and equipment; or intangible assets. AIRSOFT BTC CHIMERA

SNAP as the social media company reported better earnings yesterday. Oil stocks were pummeled on oversupply concerns and anything close to the Internet or Bitcoin saw a big bump. Investors' perceptions about value have changed over the years, but has accelerated that dynamic as the pandemic has changed how we work, interact, invest, and spend our money.

Intangible Value The evolution of the digital economy has changed the way we fundamentally value companies. The industrial economy dominated the 20th century and the most valuable companies were those with tangible assets like oil wells, railroads, and industrial machinery. The Internet changed all that, of course, and while hard assets still have value, intangible assets like patents, marketable securities, intellectual property, and consumer data have become much more valuable in the past two decades.

Bloomberg reporter Sarah Ponczek put a fine point on it in her terrific column. SNAP makes a great app and has very few tangible assets. Semiconductor maker Texas Instruments, on the other hand, has a lot of tangible assets on its books.

But that's just not good enough in a world where intangible assets are so valuable. What's Up With Bitcoin? No one really knows what drives Bitcoin prices because it is not backed by assets we can value like gold. That's also why Bitcoin enthusiasts love it, by the way.

While corporate debt holders and preferred shareholders are entitled to a fixed series of cash payments, the cash flow in excess of those amounts is essentially the property of the common shareholders. In theory, if the common shareholders decide by majority vote to close down the corporation, they would be entitled to everything left over after they settled the claims of the debt holders and preferred stockholders. The value of a common stock , therefore, is related to the monetary value of the common shareholders' residual claim on the corporation - the net asset value or common equity of the corporation.

Measuring the Value of a Claim A good measure of the value of a stockholder's residual claim at any given point in time is the book value of equity per share BVPS. Book value is the accounting value of the company's assets less all claims senior to common equity such as the company's liabilities.

In simplified terms, it's also the original value of the common stock issued plus retained earnings , minus dividends and stock buybacks. BVPS is the book value of the company divided by the corporation's issued and outstanding common shares. Keep in mind that book value and BVPS do not consider the future prospects of the firm - they are only snapshots of the common equity claim at any given point in time. Why BVPS? So why use BVPS as an analytical tool if it doesn't fully measure the potential of the stock?

There are a few good reasons: 1. BVPS is a good baseline value for a stock. While it's not technically the same thing as the liquidation value of the shares, it is a proxy for it. In many cases, stocks can and do trade at or below book value. BVPS is quick and easy to calculate. It can and should be used as a supplement to other valuation approaches such as the PE approach or discounted cash flow approaches.

If the company is going through a period of cyclical losses, it may not have positive trailing earnings or operating cash flows. This is especially applicable when the analyst has low visibility of the company's future earnings prospects. How to Calculate BVPS The quickest way to calculate BVPS is to look at the equity section of a company's balance sheet and think about what the common shareholder actually owns - common stock outstanding and retained earnings.

The good news is that the number is clearly stated and usually does not need to be adjusted for analytical purposes. As long as the accountants have done a good job and the company's executives aren't crooked we can use the common equity measure for our analytical purposes. The number is clearly stated as a subtotal in the equity section of the balance sheet. To calculate BVPS, you need to find the number of shares outstanding, which is also usually stated parenthetically next to the common stock label on Yahoo!

Finance, it's located in Key Statistics. What we're looking for is the number of shares outstanding, not simply issued.

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If assets are the property and possessions of the business , liabilities are its legal obligations i. Classification of Assets Assets may be broadly classified into three categories as shown in the below figure. Fixed Assets Fixed assets can be divided into the following groups: Tangible Wasting Fictitious Fixed assets are assets acquired for beneficial use and held permanently in the business. The business can earn profits by using these assets. Tangible assets or definite assets are fixed assets that can be seen and touched, and which have volume.

Examples of tangible assets include land, antiques, plants, buildings, fixtures, vehicles, and equipment and tools. Intangible assets are assets that cannot be seen or touched, and which have no volume. Examples include goodwill , patents, trademarks, copyrights , and leaseholds. Wasting assets are assets that get exhausted or reduce in value when used.

Natural resources , oil, timber, coal, mineral deposits, and quarries are all examples of wasting assets. Fictitious assets are assets that are either past accumulated losses or expenses, which are incurred once in the lifetime of a business and are capitalized for the time being. Forex Lots In the forex market, currencies trade in lots called micro, mini, and standard lots.

A micro lot is 1, units of a given currency, a mini lot is 10,, and a standard lot is , When trading in the electronic forex market, trades take place in blocks of currency, and they can be traded in any volume desired, within the limits allowed by the individual trading account balance. For example, you can trade seven micro lots 7, or three mini lots 30, , or 75 standard lots 7,, How Large Is the Forex? The forex market is unique for several reasons, the main one being its size.

Trading volume is generally very large. This exceeds global equities stocks trading volumes by roughly 25 times. How to Trade in Forex The forex market is open 24 hours a day, five days a week, in major financial centers across the globe.

This means that you can buy or sell currencies at virtually any hour. In the past, forex trading was largely limited to governments, large companies, and hedge funds. Now, anyone can trade on forex. Many investment firms, banks, and retail brokers allow individuals to open accounts and trade currencies. When trading in the forex market, you're buying or selling the currency of a particular country, relative to another currency.

But there's no physical exchange of money from one party to another as at a foreign exchange kiosk. In the world of electronic markets, traders are usually taking a position in a specific currency with the hope that there will be some upward movement and strength in the currency they're buying or weakness if they're selling so that they can make a profit.

A currency is always traded relative to another currency. If you sell a currency, you are buying another, and if you buy a currency you are selling another. The profit is made on the difference between your transaction prices. Spot Transactions A spot market deal is for immediate delivery, which is defined as two business days for most currency pairs.

The business day excludes Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays in either currency of the traded pair. During the Christmas and Easter season, some spot trades can take as long as six days to settle. Funds are exchanged on the settlement date , not the transaction date.

The U. The euro is the most actively traded counter currency , followed by the Japanese yen, British pound, and Swiss franc. Market moves are driven by a combination of speculation , economic strength and growth, and interest rate differentials. Forex FX Rollover Retail traders don't typically want to take delivery of the currencies they buy. They are only interested in profiting on the difference between their transaction prices.

Because of this, most retail brokers will automatically " roll over " their currency positions at 5 p. EST each day. The broker basically resets the positions and provides either a credit or debit for the interest rate differential between the two currencies in the pairs being held. The trade carries on and the trader doesn't need to deliver or settle the transaction. When the trade is closed the trader realizes a profit or loss based on the original transaction price and the price at which the trade was closed.

The rollover credits or debits could either add to this gain or detract from it. Since the forex market is closed on Saturday and Sunday, the interest rate credit or debit from these days is applied on Wednesday. Therefore, holding a position at 5 p. Forex Forward Transactions Any forex transaction that settles for a date later than spot is considered a forward.

The price is calculated by adjusting the spot rate to account for the difference in interest rates between the two currencies. The amount of adjustment is called "forward points. They are not a forecast of how the spot market will trade at a date in the future. A forward is a tailor-made contract. It can be for any amount of money and can settle on any date that's not a weekend or holiday.

As in a spot transaction, funds are exchanged on the settlement date. Forex FX Futures A forex or currency futures contract is an agreement between two parties to deliver a set amount of currency at a set date, called the expiry, in the future. Futures contracts are traded on an exchange for set values of currency and with set expiry dates. Unlike a forward, the terms of a futures contract are non-negotiable.

A profit is made on the difference between the prices the contract was bought and sold at. Instead, speculators buy and sell the contracts prior to expiration, realizing their profits or losses on their transactions. How Forex Differs from Other Markets There are some major differences between the way the forex operates and other markets such as the U.

Fewer Rules This means investors aren't held to as strict standards or regulations as those in the stock, futures or options markets.

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What is Fixed Income - Types of Fixed Income Securities fictitious assets investopedia forex

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Cross-Currency Interest Rate Swap (CCIRS)

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